Posts Tagged ‘Glocalization’

Deep Futuring

June 14, 2009

Attributes of Negentropic Deep Futuring

Virtual Personalities:

Interacting & Teaching in Social Networks; Gender Reunion; Makers, Producers and Servers, Communicative Action, Learning in Action; Action Research; Social Negentropy. An integrated politics of partnership no longer splits off the “private sphere” from the “public sphere” or “women’s rights” and “children’s rights” from “human rights.” The personal is individual, collective and political.

On the basis of criteria identified by Wildman (2003), some characteristics of social neg-entropy are:

1. Giving (in that giving from the heart without necessary expectation of return generates good will – an esoteric form of neg-entropy)
2· Empathy (care and concern for others health and well being as well as yourself)
3· Net energy creation (as contrasted to an energy sink)
4· Organologic (such as diversity encouraging, fractal geometry, spectral-reserve, self-organisation, recursiveness)
5· Diversity harmonising cp. to Conformity centralisation
6· Informal/outside the box (in that all the formal economic structures are now seriously entropic and generally shrink wrap any within house initiative); not one best way; the whole is more than the sum of the parts, neg-waste (another word for entropy)
7· Trans rational from either or to either and ie. towards the theory of the included middle where something can be both a and b rather than only a or b – with no middle overlap
8. Rebraiding thinking and doing
9· Replacing black with green letter law – this means being rewarded for what we will do right tomorrow and not punished for what we did wrong today. Wildman (2003).

Bridging & Bonding:

Wider and Deeper Global Networking; Learning Circles; Emotional and Action Learning
Value is viable and thus valuable neg-entropic complexity and evolution may be seen as the increasing of diversity within this viable complexity through self-organisation and fractal logic. This will then lead to the emergence of something valuable and potentially viable which can be found by such self-organising fluctuations among the neighbouring possibilities.

Ethical Economics:

Considerations of Ethical Economics includes for instance recognition of the importance of the Physical Economy cp. the Monetary Economy; Fractally Embedded Self-Reliant Economic and Political Systems; Creative Partnership Futures. See for instance Wildman (2003).

Cultural Reclamation:

Positive Sum Situations; Intentional Community; Anticipating Emerging Issues; Deliberative Democracy
Tocqueville 1825 identified a form of oppression as ‘mild despotism’, which he saw as erosion of liberty far more serious than violent form of despotism characteristic of feudal societies. Corporate feudalism rolls back the world clock by imposing propagandised groupthink of the lowest common denominator:

‘it covers society’s surface with a network of small, complicated, painstaking, uniform rules though which the most original minds and the most vigorous souls cannot clear a way to surpass the crowd: it does not break wills, but it softens them, bends them, and directs them; it really forces one to act, and constantly opposes itself to one’s acting; it does not destroy, it prevents things from being born; it does not tyrannise, it hinders, compromises enervates (deprives, weakens), extinguishes, dazes, and finally reduces each person to being nothing more than a herd of timid and industrious animals (robots?) of which the government is the shepherd.’ Young (2001:38).

Cultural Dynamics of Self-Organizing Chaos, Order and Negentropy

We may be able to organize boundary conditions under which evolution on earth can continue. These boundary conditions are therefore no longer purely biological they have evolved to be culturological. The spreading of this logical insight about the primacy of mental and cultural evolution is the key task, which, we have to fulfill in a hurry, and globally. We need a Socio-Cultural Neg-Entropic Innovation Process and we only have a generation to do it.

Such a Neg-Entropic Social Innovation Process (NESIP) needs to focus on:

1· Glocal Governance
2· Glocal responsiveness to socio-cultural events and acts of terrorism
3· Zones of Social Innovation – resourced e.g. through private philanthropy or the UN
4· Strong commitment to improve the health and well being of all people and peoples
5· A Physics Of Love that ennobles relationships between living entities and enriches our planet leading to a deeper respect for all life and what supports it. This way of being is called ‘relatio’ where relationships, as a way of knowing, become neg-entropic. Wildman (1996).


Evergreen Revolution; Metafuture; Compassionate Community; Collective Responsibility. Futuring means bringing proactive concrete responses to future issues into present-day operation. Rebraiding thinking and doing, this approach is suitable to present day challenges derived from global issues. This ancient ‘rebraiding’approach to futuring demonstrates a better tomorrow today, cutting the lag time from innovation to diffusion, and has the following characteristics.

· Mapping the Present and the Future through methods and tools such as the futures triangle and the futures landscape
· Anticipating the Future through methods such as emerging issues analysis and the futures wheel
· Timing the Future, understanding the grand patterns of change, macrohistory and macrofutures.
· Deepening the Future through methods such as causal layered analysis and four quadrant mapping
· Creating Alternatives to the Present through methods such as scenarios and nuts and bolts
· Transforming the Present and Creating the Future through visioning, backcasting, action learning and the transcend conflict resolution method. (Sohail Inayatullah; )

Establishing a Roadmap

A roadmap is the outcome of a collaborative foresight process that can include general and structure plans as outlined above and also it is an outcome that considers a broad set of strategies important to reaching back from a goal in the future. In this article we argue that to be neg-entropic such roadmaps need grow organically from within the social cradle outlined above and in this sense can include vision statements, forecasts, scenarios, strategy and plans, and yet deepen as they go beyond such roadmap tools in three crucial ways:

1. They emerge in a collaboration network of transdisciplinary and cooperating experts,
2. They emphasise uncertainties and challenges in the environment and in causations in the environment as well as within the researcher and use fractal logic and evo-devo sustainability, as well as identifying probable and preferred futures, and
3. They have long-term time horizons (25 years plus is de rigueur as one must structurally move beyond ones lifetime) by comparison to traditional forecasts and plans. (

Fractal Logic:

Scientists throughout the world working at the cutting edge of human survival technology are now seeking a multidisciplinary solution to the social, economic and environmental crises threatening us all. There is a desire in Western culture to try, in some way, to enhance human values. Clearly, waste-based Western technology and over-consumption is now systematically causing the destruction of human values and the degradation of the global environment. More holistic worldviews of science and technology (Poetry Science; Science-Art; Freestyle Multimedia; Know-Brow Art) can lead toward viable visions of an optimistic future.

Art connected to Source and the zeitgeist of its times has a living taproot in the matrix of evolution. Our works “work” when they work themselves through our culture, based on that culture’s underlying psychological need. They become meaningful if perceived as carrying revelatory weight that somehow illuminates our collective lives. They may not be “true”, but good things come of this generative vision, reaffirming and celebrating our humanity.

Recent major scientific discoveries have been made which demonstrate that the living process is indeed associated with a very complex infinite universal energy system. New understanding of complexity and self-organization in nature, nature’s own means of self-assembly, reveals its geometrical basis. This new paradigm, rooted in Chaos Theory, Complexity and Holographic Theory, also identifies the geometrical logic base that retrieves the lost ethical and humane physics value system.

We can use this scientific knowledge to construct a global human survival technology of unimaginable wealth, resources and human opportunity. The catalytic properties of art have been identified as the essential ingredient needed to provide the opportunity for this human survival technology to be developed. Artists actively demonstrate the environments of the future and create new valuecosms. Biotech and cosmotech are less likely than infotech to be disruptive over the next 30 years.

Human survival technology must link life to an aspect of infinite universal reality. The culture shock associated with collapse of the entropic paradigm is enormous. The issue embraces fundamental human ethical values, and sooner or later it must enter the international legal system on behalf of global human survival. Already the United Nations University Millennium Project, South Pacific Node, American Council, has fully endorsed the concept of using Creative Physics fractal logic for the cause of global world peace and such an awareness is growing via the internet.

Glocalisation for Survival

In this article we have argued that human survival requires nothing less that the re-emergence of negentropic science and art which are braided together much as the Science-Art Centre Guild indicates by the term ‘fractal logic.’ It represents a paradigm shift from materialistic to holistic attitudes and presumed truths as a negentropic survival strategy.

Chaos theory helps us explain how new forms, or orders, even new self-images, cultural paradigms, and innovative artworks and scientific discoveries emerge. It is the third revolution in science after relativity and quantum theory. It is the prime source of unpredictability in the macrocosmic world and the human scale, formerly described only by classical Newtonian physics. Chaos and complexity is nature’s own way of organizing systems and creating structure. All systems emerge from and eventually dissolve back into chaos.

Fractals, nature’s dynamic self-organizing pattern, exist in the paradoxical space between dimensions, levels and forces of existence. They arise at the interface between processes, at boundary zones where they serve both to connect and separate multiple levels. They translate information/energy, structuring dimensions by adding or recursively removing structure, embodying evolution and change. Fractal dynamics escalate change from tiny to large scales.


Holonism is a paradigm – a worldview, which is equally applicable to the universe and our human existence. It represents an escalation or change of domains from materialistic science. Chaos Theory is not a metaphor, per se, but functions as a science metaphor to describe systems, organisms, and dynamic behaviour, including complex adaptation. Fractal logic helps us access the aesthetic functions of ambiguity and paradox without polarization.

Order emerges from the creative edge of chaos – each self-similar local point is the Zero-Point centre of global fractal involvement, a mutual influence in the zone of interaction. Each point radiates creative potential. Local creativity is entangled in the totality of the global matrix. All interactions can be observed at all levels of complexity. The matrix of our creativity, active learning (by doing and shaping) and social structures helps us shape our glocal future. Elements link and combine in a virtually infinite contextual landscape and coordinate as concrete action.

Global connectivity – glocalization describes patterns within patterns — the multiplicity of factors and nonlocal relationships between each finite part of a system. In this post-Postmodern view, fragmentation is overcome synergetically. We are co-extensive with more vehicles for our consciousness than our physical bodies. Fractal logic helps us understand and exploit global processes, even when we can’t predict or control them.

Fractal logic is the logic of life, the basis of form, networks of nested networks – the logic of repeating patterns imposes itself at any level as an ingenious method of information storage, compression, transfer and indexing. The potentially infinite is actualized as a finite resource in a recursive fractal structure. De-centralized, de-territorialized platforms for communication, work and play, such as cell-phones, the Internet and Wii allow us to interact globally from any zero-point locale.

Wisdom and compassion are transmitted by harmonic resonance, by fractal affect – each of us carries within us the characteristics of all others. Thus, we move organically and experientially via cognitive and affective tuning from a paradigm of scarcity to one of infinite creative potential and hyper-connectivity, interdependence and spirituality for the betterment of the global human condition. This circular logic is embodied in Earth’s beautiful biosphere and promises a New Renaissance in science and art. The World will decide.

Ethical Economics is glocal – bottom up community economy development as opposed to top down Globalisation first. Further it is dedicated to the physical economy as opposed to the monetary economy we see so rampant today in our globalised nation based economies.

Rurban Planning – glocalisation requires self sufficient innovative bioregional permaculture netweaved sustainable settlements that braid rural and urban planning. These settlements need to ‘manage their footprint. Such planning also needs to be able to retrofit brownfield and design from scratch Greenfield sites.

Learning by thinking and doing – this is artificer learning, praxis learning, anticipatory action learning and so forth. In all instances this type of learning braids even blends thinking and doing and reflects what one may refer to as ‘indigenous circumstance’. Here kids and adults learn together vertically as well as horizontally in age cohorts.


In short the authors believe nothing less than the future of humanity depends of this redux of science and the re-emergence of neg-entropic science art~ifice. On this basis we have dedicated this site and established SAGI itself. We welcome contributions comments, ideas and projects along these lines. Maybe by featuring (y)our work we can help build towards a critical mass for this type of integrated science-art.


The Social Cradle for Survivable Futures

June 14, 2009


Our own development is integral to the evolution of the whole of human culture. Pursuing the realization of non-separation between the self and the world is crucial to the unfoldment of this process. Evolutionary paradigms describe the spiral of basic beliefs. Increasing levels of connection lead towards increasing systemic order.

HELP ME (Basic Survival)
TRIBAL We (Collective Survival
GRATIFY Me (Immediate Wants)
RIGHTEOUS We (Stable Authority)
COMPETETIVE Me (Material Success)
HOLISTIC Us (Global Harmony)
INTERDEPENDENT Me (Sustainable World)
SPIRITUAL We (Collective Renewal)

Fundamental Principles of the social dimension of the developed plan would need to include holonesquely:

· Express resolve to establish procedural and educational planning strategies – to gain public commitment to a set of fundamental principles – including ethical responsibilities to be adopted by all – to guide future urban and rural planning
· Present ethical arguments capable of practical demonstration and thus able to win public commitment to the principles of long term sustainability and responsibility for future generations:
· Call for public acceptance of a planning horizon that extends beyond 2020 to at least 2050, and preferably 2100.
· Ability to argue for public acceptance of the imperative to innovate and plan in science and art for a post-carbon era.
· Argue for public commitment to plan for and live within eco-regional carrying capacity and footprint limits.

Overall Planning Procedure, the developed plan would need to:

· Call for public submissions on alternative structure plan concepts for greenfield sites.
· Outline plans for submitting alternative structure plans to post-carbon era sustainability tests and comparative analyses in order to inform public choice.
· Outline strategies to engage public in democratic deliberation to (1) determine consent for the basic principles needed to guide evaluation and choice of alternative structure plans (2) decide on structure plans
· Outline plans to advance social methodologies for participation and technical methodologies for calculating eco-regional carrying capacity, and holonic footprinting (see explanation herewith) in order to inform decision making on structure plans. Outline plans to engage local/global partnerships and collaborations to undertake the research, and indicate the timeline for research completion.
· Outline action goals to engage educators in all sectors – schools, universities, communities, NGO’s, government agencies and corporations – to facilitate collaboratively the social learning and deliberation on the scale required (so that key players can anticipate the role they will need to play.
Greenfield Structure Plans should:
· Convey the known alternative conceptual options for guiding development of the structure plans and provide links to websites that provide developing analyses and discussion forums around each of the options.

· Include constitutional recognition of the following critical design policy issues:

1. Governance – constitution, grievance procedure – one day per week
2. Dependency – drugs and dole – addictions to chemicals and government handouts
3. Macro Planning – almost absent even obscenely so – rurban
4. Site Planning – economy – generate at least 2/3rds employment locally, contact patterns, relationship within and between the buildings, network market with other EV’s and so forth
5. Innovation – socially and technologically e.g. building materials solar decathlon wise
6. Focus – induction commitment ongoing involvement, agency structure balance
7. Community leaning the EV as a B&B
8. Socio-economic outreach – too often EVs are live in work out a sort of middle class boomer retirees pose’ with no economic centre with hundreds of regulations about noxious weeds and so forth with no through going evolving participation process and can only work for the educated upper middle class
9. Footprint – individually, house, household and community – this is one criteria that, I’m pleased to say, most of the EV’s have taken on board
10. All these integrated into participatory Design

· Outline plans to engage authorities and academic institutions to undertake suitability mapping and start-up siting for the development and demonstration of alternative planning models that offer promising long term sustainability prospects. (Wildman, 2008)

Negentropic Glocal Futuring:

‘It was Plato who introduced ‘the division between those who know and do not act and those who act and do not know,’ Paul Wildman explained in his eBook on Zen and the Artifice of Ingenuity (2008). After Plato in the West we have doggedly followed a staunchly mechanist view, identified with Newton, that ‘The Universe was a mechanical one whose order was maintained by a distant God’. Yet Newton in fact wrote more on alchemy than mathematics: he saw the universe enlivened by emotion and love. These works remain unpublished. The results of this split are readily seen today in terms of the specialisation of skills, separation of academia from actual social change projects, separation of producing from consuming e.g. we are moving rapidly away from being ‘prosumers’ – having our own gardens, making our own clothes and other bush mechanic type activities. Arendt (1963) claims this is the challenge for modernity: to re-braid thinking and doing.

In today’s complex and turbulent world it is vital to have futurists who can collaborate on collective projects, focus on action codified in exemplar projects and validate actions towards a better world. Unfortunately, current ‘education’ systems focus almost exclusively on the individual learner and have separated the learner from the praxis of the lived life. Furthermore, classrooms separate the learner from design, production and integration of learning into community life. Overcoming this separation of thinking and doing is one of the key challenges for post-postmodern glocalized future.

We may be able to meet this challenge as innovative individuals who look forward wisely and solve collective problems today through applying ingenuity with what is available, thus integrating thinking, doing and being in what in ancient times was called poiesis. Human knowledge of neg-entropic processes is urgently needed to avoid extinction. Sir Isaac Newton referred to the basic universal physics as a profound living philosophy to balance the mechanical description of the universe. This has become known as ethical physics and is known today through the logic of life viz. fractal logic the logic of neg-entropy. The holographic universe that such an approach begets and in turn begets it, is infinite, open, evolutionary and ethical – the new logic. This new logic needs to become the model for our social sciences such as economics. [Paul Wildman, Ph.D., (2003), (2004)]

Glocalization for Human Survival

June 14, 2009

Artificer or artificer learner now may be defined as: someone who while being deeply and broadly technically skilled is reflexively orientated and who ethically and participatively explores the big picture and prioritises, chooses, designs and enacts forward wisely by creatively developing prototypes towards a world transformed. [Paul Wildman 15-12-03]
Glocalization proposes both theory and practice for bridging global/local scales in an alternative equitable international system, using a mosaic of committed key actors in the physical and electronic environment. McLuhan called the environment a programmed teaching machine. The meaning of globally accessible information becomes organized in its local context as coherence. Intense local and extensive global interaction is a dynamic that operates in fractally embedded spatial and cultural dimensions. It mobilizes social and economic interaction at the local, national and transnational levels, igniting our active responsibility for future generations.

A potential movement, a peace-building activity combining realism and idealism, glocalization is a bottom-up view of the complex process of harmonizing local and global needs for sustainable futures. It brings globalization issues down to the human scale, linking committed local and global social actors.

Keywords: Futuring, Chaos theory, negentropy, fractal-logic, creativity, values and ethics, sustainable lifestyles, learning, holism, communication, science-art, networking, depth psychology, transpersonal psychology, paradigm shift, complexity, imagination, consciousness studies, fractal logic.

INTELLIGENT NETWORKS: The immediate goal of glocalization’s scale-relativity is practical development of pilot projects and best practice exemplars and policies that can be applied in many if not all areas. It includes proposals and concrete initiatives that promote balance of local and global dimensions via information sharing on a global or transregional basis. The purpose of aspirational futuring is not to predict the future, but to audaciously improve it. Wiser futures require trend identification and scenario development. Scenarios embrace and explore uncertainty in conceptual frameworks.

By adhering to a mechanistic worldview, Western civilization is on a path to extinction, says Science-Art philosopher Robert Pope. The ancient knowledge passed on by the Greeks upheld a survival science, a “Savior science” that was misinterpreted by Leonardo da Vinci but was privately understood by Isaac Newton. Da Vinci by “inadvertently” obscuring the “principle of creation” helped bring into existence a mechanistic mindset that is now accelerating a global crisis of destruction. He presumed all of the universe could be made visible to human perception, and yet the Greeks, and other ancients before them, identified with a universal reality in which harmonious, invisible atomic movement generated divine wisdom.

Negentropic futuring includes six synergetic aspects: 1) mapping acceleration, 2) anticipating, 3) timing and 4) deepening the future, 5) creating alternatives to the present and 6) transformation. Aspirational futuring includes environmental scanning, forecasts, scenarios, visions, audacious goals and understanding change and strategic issues (analysis).

Trends identify key forces shaping the future. Environmental scanning includes global, local, political, economic, technological, environmental and social trends. Scenarios map plausible and visionary space. Roadmaps help us visualize strategies and collaborative foresight, which evokes collective visualization. Paradigms are the assumed truths of our logic. Acceleration is built into the physics of the universe. We can draw from the organic metaphors of quantum physics, field theory, and chaos theory to illuminate the state of the arts.

In open systems, negentropy is the life-promoting generative force of the universe. It is the mobilization of our creative potential with cascades of positive results. Negentropy (emergent order from chaos) is a nonlinear higher order system, a dynamically creative ordering of information. Life feeds on negentropy. It is syntropy of free energy and organization. Complex systems can explode into higher forms of order and involvement — phase transitions to networked consciousness and intelligence.

Life is a survival-supporting negentropic pump. Thinking, science, and art are therefore neg-entropic. Negentropy, like art –as in the painting below, is ‘in-form-active.’ It is related to mutual information exchange and meaning. Information is embodied in the fractal nature of imagery and symbols, which compress the informational content of the whole. Opportunities are fractally reiterative instants and situations, openings for unpredictable synergy, quantum leaps — chance and choice. The better we understand complex arrangements, the better we understand and cope with what is going on.

Creativity is an emergent phenomenon patterned by strange attractors, which govern the complexity of information in dynamic flow. If you can’t see how to use continually less matter, energy, space, or time (physical resources) in your scheme to improve human performance, then you aren’t operating at the ‘leading edge’ of the tidal wave—somewhere else on the planet things are flowing much faster and more efficiently, and will soon change your game. How can we give people a choice as to which values they want to maximize first, so that different cultures can take different paths toward an inevitably faster future?

Negentropic Socioeconomic Transformation:

Can we formulate tailored local responses to growth imperatives from the inevitable forces of globalization? A combination of ‘Globalization’ and ‘Localization,’ Glocalization was first used by transnational corporations to mean a global marketing adaptation strategy. This corporate “buzzword,” a top-down view is NOT what this view is about. Joining negentropic vortices in global networks is a closer image.

Milton Friedman defines glocalization as “the ability of a culture, when it encounters other strong cultures, to absorb influences that naturally fit into and can enrich that culture, to resist those things that are truly alien and to compartmentalize those things that, while different, can nevertheless be enjoyed and celebrated as different.” A structural shift in information flow, Web 2.0 is about glocalization, it is about making global information available to local social contexts and giving people the flexibility to find, organize, share and create information in a locally meaningful fashion that is globally accessible.

Glocalization Definitions:

Diverse, over-lapping fields of global-local linkages — pan-locality, a merging of global opportunities and local interests, aiming to create a more socio-economically balanced world, reconceptualized in non-geographical terms. Comprehensive connectedness.

Conceptually Local: Combining globalization and localization, the coined-term Glocalization proposes both theory and practice for bridging scales in an alternative equitable international system, using a mosaic of committed key actors, including a full range of local, national, international, public, private, and nonprofit entities. The meaning of globally accessible information becomes organized in its local context. It means unpredictaly doing more than we know.

Networked Individualism: Intense local and extensive global interaction. Glocality is the social equivalent of “nonlocality” and entanglement in quantum physics.This dynamic operates in fractally embedded spatial and cultural dimensions to mobilize social and economic interaction at the local, national and transnational levels, responding to our responsibility to future generations. Deterritorialized active learning processes rooted in mutual understanding of needs, problems and solutions. Decentralized globalization, prioritizing strategic peacebuilding.

Placeless Power & Interconnectivity: A conscious development strategy, empowering non-subjugated localities to develop direct economic and cultural relationships to the global system through information technologies, bypassing and subverting traditional power hierarchies like national governments and markets. The identity-affirming senses of place, neighborhood, town, locale, ethnicity, etc. survive (if just barely) against the global onslaught of global capitalism, media, and network identities. Systematic integration of social and economic issues.

Vision: Activating & Motivating Individuated Autonomy

Glocalization is a potential movement, a peace-building activity combining realism and idealism. It is a bottom-up view of the complex process of harmonizing local and global needs for sustainable futures. It brings globalization issues down to the human scale.

Social Synergy: Glocalization links committed local and global actors, including virtual personalities, individuals, local, national and international business, governmental and nonprofit entities, coupling and decoupling for positive sum solutions. We can harness the benefits of multinational globalization, ethical economics and repurposing open-source information for local realities by extensive local and long-distance interactions.

Futuring Bush Mechanics

June 13, 2009

In today’s complex and turbulent world it is vital to have futurists who can collaborate on collective projects, focus on action codified in exemplar projects and validate actions towards a better world. Unfortunately, current ‘education’ systems focus almost exclusively on the individual learner and have separated the learner from the praxis of the lived life. Furthermore, classrooms separate the learner from design, production and integration of learning into community life. The author argues that overcoming this separation of thinking and doing is one of the key challenges for modernity in future, in particular.

This paper argues that a way in which we may be able to meet this challenge is known by the term ‘bush mechanics’ in Australia—innovative individuals who look forward wisely and solve collective problems today through applying their ingenuity with what is available, thus integrating thinking, doing and being in what in ancient times was called poiesis and in Medieval times ‘artificing’ and today can be seen in action learning and the bush mechanic. The four principles, as well as examples, of the bush mechanic approach are discussed including their exemplar projects. Finally, the importance of the bush mechanic approach to ‘futuring’ and creating living breathing examples today of a future our children can live with is emphasised and collaboration sought.

–Paul Wildman, 2006

1. Introduction
2. The mismatch between conception and action
2.1. Emergence of the division between thinking and doing
2.2. Society as cephalocentric—accessing the overlooked mimetic epistemology of dexterity
3. From action learning to bush mechanic learning
3.1. Artificer learning—transforming praxis
4. Masterpiece—linking higher education, vocational training and the humble bush mechanic
4.1. A working definition of a bush mechanic/artificer
4.2. Related concepts
5. The four cardinal principles of the bush mechanic
5.1. Towards a revised definition of bush mechanic/artificer
6. Examples of bush mechanics and their exemplar projects
7. Integrating bush mechanicing into social and corporate design
8. Conclusion
9. Web References (accessed 10–01–2006)